Barbus vittatus (Day, 1865)
vittatus: from the Latin vittatus, meaning ‘striped, banded’.
- Order: Cypriniformes
- Family: Cyprinidae
The species known as “Cochin, India” is named after the city of Kochi in the Ernakulam district of the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. However, current research suggests that this species is widely distributed throughout India, with additional populations in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Records of this species exist in numerous states across India, including Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. The species is apparently most abundant in the southern regions of the country.
Despite its widespread distribution, this species exhibits some variation in appearance. Further study is necessary to determine whether the species as currently recognized represents a single taxon or a complex of closely-related taxa.
This species is commonly observed in various environments such as lowland streams, minor tributaries, pools, irrigation channels, and rice paddies. It is notable for its preference for mud or silt substrates. Due to its wide distribution, it is likely that this species occupies diverse types of habitats that vary in water depth, flow, and turbidity, which may change depending on the season.
Maximum Standard Length
- 40 – 45 mm.
It is necessary to have a minimum base area of 75 x 30 cm or an equivalent size.
While the choice of décor for this species is not crucial, it tends to exhibit more vibrant colors in an aquarium that has a dark substrate and is heavily planted. The addition of floating plants and driftwood roots or branches can also help to diffuse light and create a more natural environment. Although a strong filtration system is not necessary, this species seems to prefer some water movement and will do well in a hill stream-type setup.
- Temperature: 18 – 26 °C
- pH: 6.0 – 7.5
- Hardness: 36 – 215 ppm
This species is expected to be an omnivorous forager, consuming worms, insects, and other small invertebrates, as well as plant material and organic detritus. In the aquarium, it is not difficult to feed, but to maintain its best condition and vibrant coloration, it is recommended to provide regular meals of small live and frozen foods such as bloodworm, Daphnia, and Artemia, in addition to high-quality dried flakes and granules. It is recommended that at least some of the dried foods should contain additional plant or algal content.
Behaviour and Compatibility
Aptly known for its tranquil demeanor, this species of fish is considered an excellent addition to any well-established community aquarium. In their natural habitat, these fish prefer to coexist with others that inhabit similar biotopes, particularly those that are comparably-sized and dwell in open waters, such as cyprinids. However, there are other viable options, such as balitorid, cobitid, and nemacheilid loaches, as well as benthic cyprinids like Crossocheilus and Garra species.
To ensure a more natural-looking spectacle, it is recommended to purchase a mixed-sex group of at least 8-10 specimens and include other schooling fish for added security. Observing the fascinating interaction between rival males as they vie for female attention or hierarchical position is truly a sight to behold. Additionally, this species of fish displays its most vibrant colors during these competitive moments, adding further intrigue to an already captivating aquarium environment.
su_spoiler title=”Open Water” open=”yes”]
Open water refers to any body of water that is not enclosed or contained, such as oceans, lakes, rivers, and even some reservoirs. It is a term often used in the context of outdoor water activities such as swimming, diving, boating, fishing, and surfing. While open water activities can be enjoyable and exhilarating, they also come with a certain degree of risk, especially for those who are unprepared or inexperienced.
Swimming in Open Water:
Swimming in open water is a popular activity, especially during the summer months. Unlike swimming in a pool, where the water is usually calm and contained, open water swimming can present many challenges. These challenges include waves, currents, tides, and cold temperatures. Swimmers should always be aware of their surroundings and be able to handle unexpected situations such as strong currents or sudden changes in weather.
Swimmers should also be aware of the potential hazards of open water, such as marine life, pollution, and submerged objects. In some areas, there may be dangerous creatures such as sharks, jellyfish, or alligators. It is essential to research the location before swimming and to follow any posted warnings or advisories.
Diving in Open Water:
Diving in open water is a popular activity for those who enjoy exploring the underwater world. Divers must be properly trained and certified before diving in open water. This includes learning about equipment, safety procedures, and proper diving techniques.
Open water diving can present many challenges, such as poor visibility, strong currents, and cold temperatures. Divers should always dive with a buddy and be aware of their surroundings. They should also have a plan in case of an emergency, such as running out of air or getting lost.
Boating in Open Water:
Boating in open water is a popular activity for those who enjoy fishing, water skiing, or just cruising around. Boaters must be properly licensed and trained before operating a boat in open water. This includes learning about safety procedures, navigation rules, and proper boat handling techniques.
Boaters should also be aware of their surroundings and be able to handle unexpected situations such as strong currents or sudden changes in weather. They should also be aware of other boats and watercraft in the area and follow any posted rules or regulations.
Surfing in Open Water:
Surfing in open water is a popular activity for those who enjoy riding the waves. Surfing can present many challenges, such as strong currents, waves, and cold temperatures. Surfers should always be aware of their surroundings and be able to handle unexpected situations such as strong currents or sudden changes in weather.
Surfers should also be aware of the potential hazards of open water, such as marine life and submerged objects. In some areas, there may be dangerous creatures such as sharks or jellyfish. It is essential to research the location before surfing and to follow any posted warnings or advisories.
Open water activities can be enjoyable and exhilarating, but they also come with risks. Proper preparation, training, and awareness are essential to ensure a safe and enjoyable experience. It is important to research the location before engaging in any open water activity and to follow any posted warnings or advisories. By taking the necessary precautions, you can have a fun and safe experience in the open water.[/su_spoiler]
In this particular species of fish, the adult males can be easily distinguished from females due to their slimmer physique and more vibrant coloration, particularly evident in their unpaired and ventral fins. During the breeding season, males also undergo a transformation, developing rows of small tubercles on the dorsal surface of their pectoral fins, a characteristic not present in females.
As with most small cyprinids, the species of fish known as Puntius spp. are free spawners, scattering their eggs and exhibiting no parental care. In favorable conditions, these fish will spawn frequently and in a mature aquarium, it is possible for small numbers of fry to appear without any intervention. However, if one desires to maximize yield, a more controlled approach is necessary.
To achieve this, a smaller aquarium should be set up, filled with mature water, and dimly lit. The base of the aquarium should be covered with a mesh or a layer of glass marbles, which is large enough to allow the eggs to fall through but small enough to prevent the adults from reaching them. Alternatively, a fine-leaved plant like Taxiphyllum spp. or spawning mops can also be used for this purpose.
The water in the aquarium should be slightly acidic to neutral in pH, with a temperature towards the upper end of the range recommended for the species. An air-powered sponge filter or air stone should also be included to provide oxygenation and water movement.
Once the adults are well-conditioned, and the females appear gravid, one or two pairs should be introduced to the breeding aquarium, and spawning should take place the following morning. Alternatively, a group of six specimens of each sex could be used to breed, although a larger aquarium may be necessary.
In either situation, the adults will likely eat the eggs if given the chance and should be removed as soon as any are noticed. The eggs should hatch within 24-48 hours, and the fry should become free-swimming around 24 hours later. To feed the fry, an infusoria-grade food should be used for the first few days until they are large enough to accept microworms, Artemia nauplii, or other suitable food sources.
The species known as “kooli barb” is not a popular aquarium fish despite being found in many different natural habitats. It can be distinguished from similar-looking species by its lack of barbels, an incomplete lateral line with up to 5 pored scales, 20-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, a dorsal fin with a vertically-oriented black streak and a black tip with orange markings, and a dark spot at the base of the caudal peduncle.
For a long time, the genus Puntius was considered a polyphyletic catch-all for over 100 small to mid-sized cyprinids until a partial review was published by Pethiyagoda et al. in 2012. This led to the reclassification of many sub-Himalayan Puntius species and the creation of new genera, including Dawkinsia, Dravidia, and Pethia. Some species were retained in Puntius or moved to the existing Systomus group, while some Southeast Asian species formerly in Systomus were no longer considered members.
However, the replacement name Haludaria was later created by Pethiyagoda in 2013 because the name Dravidia was already in use by a genus of flesh fly. P. vittatus was tentatively kept in Puntius because it possesses certain external diagnostic characters. Species from Indochina, China, and Indonesia were not included in the study, and many former Puntius species are currently classified as incertae sedis, or of uncertain taxonomic placement. Some South Asian species are also of unresolved status and are best referred to as “Puntius” for the time being, denoted by quotation marks to indicate their questionable usage. This convention is currently used on SF.
- Day, F., 1865 – Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1): 286-318
On the fishes of Cochin, on the Malabar Coast of India. Part II. Anacanthini.
- Kullander, S. O. and F. Fang, 2005 – Copeia 2005(2): 290-302
Two new species of Puntius from northern Myanmar (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
- Pethiyagoda, R., 2013 – Zootaxa 3646(2): 199
Haludaria, a replacement generic name for Dravidia (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
- Pethiyagoda, R., M. Meegaskumbura, and K. Maduwage, 2012 – Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 23(1): 69-95
A synopsis of the South Asian fishes referred to Puntius (Pisces: Cyprinidae).
- Yazdani, G. M. and D. F. Singh, 1994 – Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 91(2): 107-109
Puntius crescentus, a new cyprinid fish from south India with observations on the taxonomic status of some related species.