The name Hyphessobrycon is derived from the Ancient Greek words υπελάσσων (hyphesson), meaning ‘of lesser stature’, which is used as a prefix in this case, and the generic name Brycon.
- Order: Characiformes
- Family: Characidae
The type locality of H. amandae is the Rio das Mortes, which is located approximately 100 km before its confluence with the Braço Maior of the Rio Araguaia. This river system forms the western border of the Isla do Bananal and is a principal tributary of the Araguaia, which is itself the major affluent of the Rio Tocantins in central and western Brazil. However, the full range of H. amandae within the Araguaia system is currently unclear.
There is limited information available regarding the habitat preferences of this species, but it is believed to primarily inhabit minor tributaries, backwaters, and oxbow lakes rather than the main river channels. In the Araguaia drainage, these types of habitats are typically characterized by soft, weakly acidic water and a substrate covered by a layer of fallen leaves and branches.
Maximum Standard Length
The maximum standard length of this species ranges from 15 to 20 mm.
It is recommended to use an aquarium with base dimensions of at least 45 * 30 cm or equivalent.
It is recommended to keep this species in a heavily-planted aquarium with a dark substrate. Adding floating plants, driftwood branches, and dried leaf litter is beneficial as they promote the establishment of microbe colonies through the process of decomposition. These microorganisms can serve as an additional food source for fry, and the tannins and other chemicals released by the decaying leaves are believed to be beneficial.
A gentle filtration system with an air-powered sponge-style unit is typically sufficient, but some degree of water movement is acceptable.
This species thrives in water with a temperature range of 20 to 28 °C, a pH level of 5.0 to 7.0, and a hardness of 18 to 179 ppm.
This species is considered a micropredator in nature, feeding on small invertebrates and other zooplankton. In captivity, it can be fed dried foods of an appropriate size, but it is recommended to offer small portions of live or frozen food such as Artemia nauplii, Moina, and grindal worm on a daily basis.
Behaviour and Compatibility
This species is known for its peaceful nature and does not compete well with very boisterous or significantly larger tankmates. For optimal tank compatibility, it is recommended to keep this fish with similarly-sized and peaceful characids, smaller callichthyid or loricariid catfish, and calm surface-dwellers like hatchetfishes.
In addition, it can serve as an excellent dither fish for Apistogramma spp. and other dwarf cichlids, as it tends to inhabit the middle-to-upper regions of the tank and is not known to hunt fry.
This species can also be included in a general community aquarium setup and is compatible with smaller rasboras, barbs, anabantoids, and other similarly-sized peaceful fish.
Due to its gregarious nature and tendency to form schools, it is recommended to purchase a minimum of 8 to 10 specimens. This will allow the fish to display more interesting behavior and become less shy in the aquarium.
Male adults of this species exhibit more intense coloration, particularly during spawning periods. On the other hand, female adults have rounder bodies that are noticeably different from the males.
This species is an egg-scattering free spawner and does not exhibit any parental care. In good condition, adults will spawn frequently, and in a mature aquarium, fry may appear without intervention.
However, to maximize yield, a more controlled approach is necessary. The adult group can still be conditioned together, but a smaller aquarium should also be set up and filled with mature water. The tank should be dimly lit, and the base should be covered with a mesh of a large enough grade for the eggs to fall through but small enough to prevent adults from reaching them. Alternatively, plastic ‘grass’-type matting or a layer of glass marbles can be used. A fine-leaved plant such as Taxiphyllum spp. or spawning mops can also be used to return decent results.
The water in the tank should be slightly acidic to neutral pH, and the temperature should be towards the upper end of the range suggested above. An air-powered sponge filter or air stone(s) should be included to provide oxygenation and water movement.
When the adult fish are well-conditioned, a single pair or group comprising one or two males and several females can be introduced to each container and left in place for 2-3 days before being removed. Shortly after removal, the first fry should be visible. Initial food for the fry should be Paramecium or a proprietary dry food of a small (5-50 micron) grade. As the fry grow, Artemia nauplii, microworm, and other small foods can be introduced.