Producing a book of this type relies on the skills of many people, and I have been fortunate to be working with two very talented teams at cobalt id and Dorling Kindersley.
Glofish 70 gobies 260–261 breeding 230, 231 suckerlike device 261 goldfish 74, 332–343 breeding 326, 327, 328, 341 designing ponds for 300 diseases 324 feeding 316, 337 hand-stripping 326 indoor tanks 312, 313 origins and ancestry 22, 334 pigmentation and sheen 333 scales 16
Abramites hypselonotus 88 Abudefduf saxatilis 241 Abudefduf sexfasciatus 241 Acanthurus achilles 236 Acanthurus japonicus 236 Acanthurus leucosternon 237 Acanthurus lineatus 237 Acanthurus olivaceus 237 Acanthurus pyroferus 236
Useful websites Most aquatic organizations have websites that give up-to-date contact telephone numbers and mailing addresses. The following is a selection of currently operating sites: American Cichlid Association www.cichlid.org Features news, advice, contacts, and a gallery and chat room for fans of these popular aquarium fish. American Killifish Association www.aka.org Helps to promote the keeping […]
Acidic: A reading below 7.0 on the pH scale. Activated carbon: A manufactured form of carbon that is highly porous. Adipose fin: A small fin between the dorsal and caudal fins, most notable in tetras and other characoids.
Water lilies are among the most attractive of all pond plants and relatively easy to keep. They help to maintain the water quality in the pond, because their roots absorb nitrates produced by the decomposition of fish feces. A mat of lily leaves on the pond’s surface will reduce the amount of sunlight entering the water, protecting the fish from sunburn and restricting algal growth. It will also enable the fish to dart out of sight when a predator’s shadow darkens the pond. Do not plant tropical lilies in water that is below 75°F (24°C); otherwise, they may not grow but simply remain dormant or even rot.
These plants are not renowned for their flowers, but they give the pond a more natural feel and are important for the well-being of the fish. They spread to form a dense mass, protecting the fish from predators, especially birds, and also from sunburn, in addition to curbing algal growth. Furthermore, they provide spawning sites and food for some species of fish. Floating plants are easy to establish—simply let them drift on the surface until they find a suitable position—and they develop much faster in a new pond than other types of plants, such as marginals and water lilies. Some popular varieties originate from warm climates and are not hardy in temperate areas. They should be brought inside to protect them from winter frosts.
These plants, which grow beneath the water’s surface, play a crucial role in creating a healthy environment for pond fish, because they release oxygen into the water as a by-product of photosynthesis. They also help to maintain water clarity by competing for dissolved nutrients with particulate algae (which are responsible for the green hue of pond water). Some species also produce highly attractive flowers. Oxygenators can, however, become rampant, and it may be necessary to remove clumps to ensure that the fish have adequate swimming space.
These plants are more decorative than functional. However, when planted in containers on the marginal shelf—the ledge around the inside of preformed ponds, about 12 in (30 cm) below the surface—they can provide retreats for young fish. Marginals can also be grown as edging plants, giving the pond a more informal look and creating a barrier that makes it more difficult for predators to reach the fish. Some marginals trail down into the water, which helps to hide the perimeter from view. All the plants featured here are suitable for temperate climates, but some will benefit from protection in winter.
In addition to goldfish and koi, many other fish from a wide range of families thrive in coldwater ponds, from small, colorful species, such as this Red Shiner (see also p.361), to prehistoric-looking sturgeon. However, the keeping of coldwater fish has raised environmental concerns, principally that imported exotic species may escape into the wild and endanger populations of native fish. As a result, there are legal restrictions on the sale and movement of some species. Dealers should be familiar with these laws, but you can check with the US Department of Agriculture (or, in Canada, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans) for up-to-date regulations.